Therapies – Skill and Attribute


We are all born with certain skills and proficiencies (for instance one person might be good at math and art, the other at reading and football). But rarely do any of us master all of the elements in all of the categories: Academic, Sports/spatial, Emotional, Vocational and Social. Yet what we think is what we become – the first step in becoming ‘better’ is simply to change your mind on the element. This is the first step on a journey that takes us from Unconscious Incompetence (I do not know what I cannot do), to Conscious Incompetence (I know what I cannot do), to Conscious Competence (I have learned to do it) to Unconscious Incompetence (I can do it without thinking about it). Learning to drive is a good example of this. To be ‘good’ at something you need two things: confidence and ability. Hypnotherapy aids you in mastering both of these elements.




Please click on any of the issues below to find out about it in more detail.




In psychology, memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information from the outside world to be sensed in the form of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage the information must be changed so that it may be put into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that information is maintained over periods of time. Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that has been stored. Such information must be located and returned to the consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information, and other attempts to remember stored information may be more demanding for various reasons.

From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:

• Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information
• Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information
• Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity

The loss of memory is described as forgetfulness or, as a medical disorder, amnesia.


Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of limited processing resources.

Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology. Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the sensory cues and signals that generate attention, the effects of these sensory cues and signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes like working memory and vigilance. A relatively new body of research, which expands upon earlier research within neuropsychology, is investigating the diagnostic symptoms associated with traumatic brain injuries and their effects on attention. Attention also varies across cultures.

The relationships between attention and consciousness are complex enough that they have warranted perennial philosophical exploration. Such exploration is both ancient and continually relevant, as it can have effects in fields ranging from mental health and the study of disorders of consciousness to artificial intelligence and its domains of research and development.

Improve Sales

Selling is offering to exchange an item of value for a different item. The original item of value being offered may be either tangible or intangible. The second item, usually money, is most often seen by the seller as being of equal or greater value than that being offered for sale.

A person or organization expressing an interest in acquiring the offered item of value is referred to as a potential buyer, prospective customer or prospect. Buying and selling are understood to be two sides of the same "coin" or transaction. Both seller and buyer engage in a process of negotiation to consummate the exchange of values. The exchange, or selling, process has implied rules and identifiable stages. It is implied that the selling process will proceed fairly and ethically so that the parties end up nearly equally rewarded. The stages of selling, and buying, involve getting acquainted, assessing each party’s need for the other’s item of value, and determining if the values to be exchanged are equivalent or nearly so, or, in buyer's terms, "worth the price.”

From a management viewpoint it is thought of as a part of marketing, although the skills required are different. Sales often forms a separate grouping in a corporate structure, employing separate specialist operatives known as salespersons (singular: salesperson). Selling is considered by many to be a sort of persuading "art". Contrary to popular belief, the methodological approach of selling refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, by which a salesman relates his or her offering of a product or service in return enabling the buyer to achieve their goal in an economic way. While the sales process refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, the definition of the selling is somewhat ambiguous due to the close nature of advertising, promotion, public relations, and direct marketing.

Career Success

Status refers to the relative rank that an individual holds; this includes attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honor or prestige. Status has two different types that come along with it: achieved, and ascribed. The word status refers to social stratification on a vertical scale.

In modern societies, occupation is usually thought of as the main determinant of status, but other memberships or affiliations (such as ethnic group, religion, gender, voluntary associations, fandom, hobby) can have an influence. Achieved status is when people are placed in the stratification structure based on their individual merits or achievements. This status can be achieved through education, occupation, and marital status. Their place within the stratification structure is determined by society's bar, which often judges them on success, success being financial, academic, political and so on. America most commonly uses this form of status with jobs. The higher you are in rank the better off you are and the more control you have over your co-workers.


Effective communication occurs when a desired thought is the result of intentional or unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures that messages are not distorted during the communication process. Effective communication should generate the desired effect and maintain the effect, with the potential to increase the effect of the message. Therefore, effective communication serves the purpose for which it was planned or designed. Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action, create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When the desired effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are explored, with the intention being to discover how the communication has been ineffective.

Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication process or an effect that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness.

This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate" communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient.

• Physical barriers. Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which exists if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems. Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization.

• System design. System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know whom to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them.

• Attitudinal barriers. Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organization. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or simply resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas.

• Ambiguity of words/phrases. Words sounding the same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever possible.

• Individual linguistic ability. The use of jargon, difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent the recipients from understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. However, research in communication has shown that confusion can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion fails.

• Physiological barriers. These may result from individuals' personal discomfort, caused—for example—by ill health, poor eyesight or hearing difficulties.

• Cultural differences. These may result from the cultural differences of communities around the world, within an individual country (tribal/regional differences, dialects etc.), between religious groups and in organizations or at an organizational level - where companies, teams and units may have different expectations, norms and idiolects. Families and family groups may also experience the effect of cultural barriers to communication within and between different family members or groups. For example: words, colors and symbols have different meanings in different cultures. In most parts of the world, nodding your head means agreement, shaking your head means now, except in some parts of the world.


Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. While consciousness is a term given to being aware of one’s environment and body and lifestyle, self-awareness is the recognition of that awareness


In sociology and psychology, self-esteem reflects a person's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent", "I am worthy") and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith and Mackie (2007) defined it by saying "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it." Self-esteem is attractive as a social psychological construct because researchers have conceptualized it as an influential predictor of certain outcomes, such as academic achievement, happiness, satisfaction in marriage and relationships, and criminal behavior. Self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example, "I believe I am a good writer and feel happy about that") or a global extent (for example, "I believe I am a bad person, and feel bad about myself in general"). Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic ("trait" self-esteem), though normal, short-term variations ("state" self-esteem) also exist. Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include: self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, and self-integrity.

Writer's Block

Writer's block may have several causes. Some are creative problems that originate within an author's work itself. A writer may run out of inspiration, or be distracted by other events. A fictional example can be found in George Orwell's novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying, in which the protagonist Gordon Comstock struggles in vain to complete an epic poem describing a day in London: "It was too big for him, that was the truth. It had never really progressed, it had simply fallen apart into a series of fragments."

Other blocks may be produced by adverse circumstances in a writer's life or career: physical illness, depression, the end of a relationship, financial pressures, or a sense of failure. The pressure to produce work may in itself contribute to writer's block, especially if they are compelled to work in ways that are against their natural inclination (i.e. with a deadline or an unsuitable style or genre). Writer's block may also come from feeling intimidated by one's previous big successes. The writer Elizabeth Gilbert, reflecting on her post-bestseller prospects, proposed that such a pressure might be released by interpreting creative writers as "having" genius rather than "being" a genius.

It has been suggested that writer's block is more than just a mentality. Under stress, a human brain will "shift control from the cerebral cortex to the limbic system". The limbic system is associated with the instinctual processes, such as "fight or flight" response; and behavior that is based on "deeply engrained training". The limited input from the cerebral cortex hinders a person's creative processes, which are replaced by the behaviors associated with the limbic system. The person is often unaware of the change, which may lead them to believe they are creatively "blocked". In her 2004 book The Midnight Disease: The Drive to Write, Writer's Block, and the Creative Brain, the writer and neurologist Alice W. Flaherty has argued that literary creativity is a function of specific areas of the brain, and that block may be the result of brain activity being disrupted in those areas.

Relationship Enhancement

Interpersonal relationships are dynamic systems that change continuously during their existence. Like living organisms, relationships have a beginning, a lifespan, and an end. They tend to grow and improve gradually, as people get to know each other and become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives and form new relationships with others. One of the most influential models of relationship development was proposed by psychologist George Levinger. This model was formulated to describe heterosexual, adult romantic relationships, but it has been applied to other kinds of interpersonal relations as well. According to the model, the natural development of a relationship follows five stages:

1. Acquaintance and acquaintanceship – Becoming acquainted depends on previous relationships, physical proximity, first impressions, and a variety of other factors. If two people begin to like each other, continued interactions may lead to the next stage, but acquaintance can continue indefinitely. Another example is association.

2. Buildup – During this stage, people begin to trust and care about each other. The need for intimacy, compatibility and such filtering agents as common background and goals will influence whether or not interaction continues.

3. Continuation – This stage follows a mutual commitment to quite a strong and close long-term friendships, romantic relationship, or even marriage. It is generally a long, relative stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship.

4. Deterioration – Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble. Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure. Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. (Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others.)

5. Termination – The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.

Friendships may involve some degree of transitivity. In other words, a person may become a friend of an existing friend's friend. However, if two people have a sexual relationship with the same person, they may become competitors rather than friends. Accordingly, sexual behavior with the sexual partner of a friend may damage the friendship (see love triangle). Sexual activities between two friends tend to alter that relationship, either by "taking it to the next level" or by severing it.

A list of interpersonal skills includes:

• Verbal communication – What we say and how we say it.
• Nonverbal communication – What we communicate without words, body language is an example.
• Listening skills – How we interpret both the verbal and non-verbal messages sent by others.
• Negotiation – Working with others to find a mutually agreeable outcome.
• Problem solving – Working with others to identify, define and solve problems.
• Decision making – Exploring and analyzing options to make sound decisions.
• Assertiveness – Communicating our values, ideas, beliefs, opinions, needs and wants freely.

Study Habits

Study skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in school, considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning throughout one's life. There is an assertion that most students fail in examinations simply because they lack study skills and/or examination taking techniques.

Study skills are an array of skills which tackle the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with assessments. They include mnemonics, which aid the retention of lists of information; effective reading; concentration techniques; and efficient note taking.

While often left up to the student and their support network, study skills are increasingly taught in high school and at the university level. A number of books and websites are available, from works on specific techniques such as Tony Buzan's books on mind-mapping, to general guides to successful study. More broadly, any skill which boosts a person's ability to study and pass exams can be termed a study skill, and this could include time management and motivational techniques.

Study skills are discrete techniques that can be learned, usually in a short time, and applied to all or most fields of study. They must therefore be distinguished from strategies that are specific to a particular field of study e.g. music or technology, and from abilities inherent in the student, such as aspects of intelligence or learning styles.

Exercise (Motivation)

You know you should do it. And you know why: Exercising -- simply put, moving instead of sitting -- is critical for safeguarding your health and setting a good example for your kids. So why does it seem so hard to get yourself moving?

The truth is: You can. But knowing how and why to exercise isn’t enough. You need to develop the right mind-set to get and stay motivated.

Hypnosis for exercise motivation can help you get faster, run longer, train harder, lift heavier; but most importantly you can do this whilst having fun!


Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition or a joke) or an original physical object (such as an invention, a literary work or a painting).

Scholarly interest in creativity involves many definitions and concepts pertaining to a number of disciplines: psychology, cognitive science, education, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), technology, theology, sociology, linguistics, business studies, songwriting, and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, mental and neurological processes, personality type and creative ability, creativity and mental health; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology; and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning.


Self-hypnosis is used extensively in modern hypnotherapy. It can take the form of hypnosis carried out by means of a learned routine. Hypnosis allows one to gain from deep potential present in them. Hypnosis may help pain management, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, obesity, asthma, and skin conditions. When this practice is mastered, it can improve concentration, recall, enhance problem solving, alleviate headaches and even improve one's control of emotions.
Self-Hypnosis requires four distinct steps.
Step 1: Motivation. Without proper motivation, an individual will find it difficult to practice self-hypnosis
Step 2: Relaxation: The individual must be thoroughly relaxed and must set aside time to perform this act. Additionally, distractions should be eliminated as full attention is needed.
Step 3: Concentration: the individual needs to concentrate completely as energy is generated each time the mind focuses on a single image.
Step 4: Directing: This is an option used only when the individual wants to work on a specific goal. The individual must direct their concentration on visualizing the desired result


Hypnosurgery is the term given to an operation where the patient is sedated using hypnotherapy rather than traditional anesthetics. Hypnosis for anesthesia has been used since the 1840s where it was pioneered by the surgeon James Braid. During hypnosurgery, the Hypnotherapist helps the patient control their subconscious reflexes so that they do not feel pain in the traditional sense. Patients are aware of sensation as the operation progresses and often describe a tingling or tickling sensation when pain would normally be expected.

Hypnosis is used in surgery for pain management, to control spasms in the alimentary canal, during rehabilitation and as anesthesia during operation.

What is more frequently used is hypnosedation, a combination regimen of hypnosis, local injection of analgesics and mild sedation. The patients -mostly aged or other persons that run an increased risk under general anesthesia - are mildly sedated and brought in a state of increased alertness by having them listen to a story in the operation theatre. Anesthesiologists at the University of Liège in Belgium have performed over 4800 surgical interventions, mainly in ENT and thyroid treatments, over the past 10 years.
The main benefit of hypnosurgery is that there are fewer side effects, and generally a patient can leave hospital sooner than if normal anesthetics are used. A reduction in blood loss and post-operative nausea have also been recorded.

Hypnosis may also be helpful post-surgery in helping to facilitate faster healing in patients, with one study reporting faster tissue healing in patients who use hypnosis during surgical recovery. Several other studies have shown a psychological link with healing and recovery. In a study of patients up to seven weeks after undergoing a surgical procedure, researchers found greater healing and improvement in patients who had used hypnosis over those who only received supportive attention or standard "standard postoperative care."


Oct. 25, 2005 -- Hypnosis could help soothe anxiety before surgery, new research shows.

Doctors at Yale University's medical school reported the news at the American Society of Anesthesiologists' annual meeting.
They tested hypnosis on a small group of adults right before outpatient surgery.

Their finding: Hypnosis worked. After one hypnosis session, patients were less anxious about their operation than they had been just half an hour before.

Why do presurgery jitters matter? They've been linked to greater pain, increased need for painkillers, and longer hospital stays after surgery, write the researchers.
Patients were less anxious after hypnosis, even in the operating rooms, the surveys showed.

Right after hypnosis, anxiety levels were 68% lower than in the waiting room. In the operating room, the hypnosis group's anxiety levels were still less than half of what they had originally been.


The mastery of one’s own self to forge one’s own destiny is possibly the ultimate test a person could face in their life. How we maintain our frame in the face of life’s uncertainties can give us important clues on how far we have gone down the path of self-mastery. There are only two things in life which are certain: change, and the grim reaper. Every human being has to experience them some time or the other, so the time we have in life is what is our greatest possession.

Self-mastery possibly represents the ultimate goal that a one can achieve (or could seek to achieve), for it is a potent tool that helps us to create the reality or destiny that we seek for ourselves. We can only control what we can control. And the most cherished thing that we can control is the self. Since the journey of self-mastery is possibly the most difficult (and important) journey a man can undertake in his life, there are certain factors which are extremely important and necessary for the process, and the subsequent attainment of it. They are:

1. The knowledge of self-discovery, and courage
This is the seed, the first step towards self-mastery. Who are you—as a person, taking in regard the complete sum of your nature-given gifts and flaws? Do you really know yourself? Have you discovered your true self and the purpose of your life? You cannot control or estimate who you are or what you can do, unless you know first who you are or what you can do. Answering these questions honestly is the least a man can do for himself, to begin self-discovery. You cannot master the self until you know what your own self is – for many are often afraid to take the plunge into the abyss of their own selves to face their personal “demons” – but rather choose to “safely” spend their lives trying to “discover” others. We can control others because we know what they think, how they’d act, or what they can or would do; but do we know what our own selves are capable of? Thus self-discovery becomes very important for the formation and correct estimation of the true self in one’s own mind, as we can’t see ourselves in first person as others do. The formation of the true self-image after self-discovery leads to the correct visual reality or the goals we can properly visualize for ourselves. Such is the power of self-discovery, for it grants us with the true knowledge of what we realistically are and what we are capable of, which itself is Power. This power, coupled with courage, is an important catalyst on the path to self-mastery. Courage in the context of self-mastery is not recklessness; rather it is the ability to face the truth (knowledge) of the flaws within ourselves and the dangers (fears) around us which limit us, and to make efforts to overcome them. A man’s fears often limit him unnecessarily, which stunt his identity. Fear can be of two types: the known and the unknown—but can be overcome with the shrewd, sincere, and dedicated use of courage, coupled with knowledge – for the masterful man knows which battles to pick wisely. The man who rises up to his fears is thus the master of his own self, and can take charge of his destiny.

2. Self-Belief
Within the self, that is. If you don’t believe or trust in yourself, no one can help you. Belief (or faith) in oneself is possibly the greatest belief that a man could harbor (after belief in God). The human body and mind is incredible, when it comes to feats of greatness. All of these were possible with the power of belief. To become masters of the self, we must first believe that we can become masters of the self. That self-belief is the dynamo which unrelentingly fuels the journey of a man on the path of self-mastery, in face of failures and pitfalls.

3. Willpower and Discipline
“When there is a will, there is a way,” as the saying goes. To control the self, willpower is undoubtedly necessary. Man, created free, is possibly the greatest slave to his own volition. But how many men ever manage to control their own volition—and train their own minds? If you are going to win any battle, you have to do one thing. You have to make the mind run the body. Willpower and discipline are important tools in the arsenal of the masterful man. Learn how to generate them, even if the process may be mutually exclusive.

4. The art of delaying self-gratification
As mentioned above, most people are slaves to their own volition. The masterful man who is the master of his own pleasure is not only the one who can attain or create his pleasure easily, but also the one who can delay its gratification – at his own will.

5. Minimalism
To be a true master of yourself, you must be free from others. The more you’re free from external obligations, the more you’re free to lead the life you’d want. That’s where minimalism can be expressed in your life – by de-cluttering and making your life free from external interferences as much as possible. Live a minimalist life—free from unnecessary things, ideas and even people—which and who limit your freedom. Learn the ways of how to create your own freedom. Cultivate simplicity, frugality and austerity. In today’s commercial times, not only will this help to conserve your resources and maintain your financial freedom—which lubricates other types of freedom—but it will also bestow onto you the survivor’s mindset, which will help you to make the best of any situation, how matter how difficult and trying it may be.

6. Emotional Detachment
Directly linked to the factor above, the virtues of emotional detachment cannot be explained enough. You cannot become the master of your own fate, as long as others continue to have a say in to ‘control’ and determine your actions, thoughts, and thus eventual fate. The man who finds security and fulfillment within himself is the true master of the self. He doesn’t let things, myths, unfounded beliefs, or people rule his life , as he is free from attachments to such which would limit him. The real reason of his fulfillment is because he lives his life naturally as a free being, as nature created him to be—to discover his own unique identity and create his own destiny. The most important aspect of my personality as far as determining my success goes; has been my questioning conventional wisdom, doubting experts and questioning authority. While that can be painful in your relationships with your parents and teachers, it’s enormously useful in life. – Larry Ellison Emotional detachment is, if you think deeply about it, a liberating form of self-love that a man can and should develop.

7. Perseverance and Patience
On the path towards self-mastery, there are bound to be innumerable mistakes, what people may brand as “failures.” But a mistake is not a failure, as long as you continue to pull yourself back onto the path of self-mastery. Enlightened men went through a period of “failures” during their metamorphosis into self-masterful men; for no one learns self-mastery from the mother’s womb. The key is not to lose focus, and more importantly, patience with the process. A great quality of the men who attained self-mastery was patience: not only with others, but more so with the self, when they failed. As the teacher is patient with the student’s mistakes during the learning process, they were patient enough with themselves to stick onto the path of self-mastery and continued to persevere without quitting.

8. Self-Reliance
Self-explanatory as it is, the power of self-reliance is one of the core strengths of the master—which he develops and guards persistently. He thus becomes the rock to which others lean onto, just like the mountain to which the dew gravitates to.

9. Acceptance
People around you, constantly under the pull of their emotions, change their ideas by the day or by the hour, depending on their mood. You must never assume that what people say or do in a particular moment is a statement of their permanent desires. ― Robert Greene, ‘Mastery’. Some of the greatest challenges we often face in life involve accepting life for the stuff it throws at us through the unpleasant circumstances, events, things and people we may encounter. True social intelligence—the hallmark of a master—also involves guile, and sometimes suffering fools gladly, and trying to see yourself as how people see you —so as to be in a better position to deal with them, once you know their perception of you. This acceptance is thus not easy to practice by all, but only by the initiated as it involves a lot of patience and endurance—qualities necessary for both self-mastery, and mastery over others.


Many successful men live their lives mastering others without mastering themselves. Happiness from success is not a goal, but a journey. But the greatest fulfillment comes from freedom, for it allows us the leverage to shape the destiny we desire for ourselves—which is often and truly created by self-mastery of the self, which itself is a journey.


Self-realization is an expression used in psychology, spirituality, and Eastern religions. It is defined as the "fulfillment by oneself of the possibilities of one's character or personality.

In one overview, Mortimer Adler defines self-realization as freedom from external coercion, including cultural expectations, political and economic freedom, and the freedom from worldly attachments and desires etc. Paramahansa Yogananda defined Self-realization as "the knowing — in body, mind, and soul - that we are one with the omnipresence of God; that we do not have to pray that it come to us, that we are not merely near it at all times, but that God’s omnipresence is our omnipresence; that we are just as much a part of Him now as we ever will be. All we have to do is improve our knowing."

Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways. The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize one's full potential. Expressing one's creativity, quest for spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, and the desire to give to society are examples of self-actualization. In Goldstein's view, it is the organism's master motive, the only real motive: "the tendency to actualize itself as fully as possible is the basic drive... the drive of self-actualization." Carl Rogers similarly wrote of "the curative force in psychotherapy - man's tendency to actualize himself, to become his potentialities... to express and activate all the capacities of the organism." The concept was brought most fully to prominence in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory as the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are essentially fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place, although he adapted this viewpoint later on in life, and saw it more flexibly. Self-actualization can be seen as similar to words and concepts such as self-discovery, self-reflection, self-realization and self-exploration.

As Abraham Maslow noted, the basic needs of humans must be met (e.g. food, shelter, warmth, security, sense of belongingness) before a person can achieve self-actualization - the need to be good, to be fully alive and to find meaning in life. Research shows that when people live lives that are different from their true nature and capabilities, they are less likely to be happy than those whose goals and lives match. For example, someone who has inherent potential to be a great artist or teacher may never realize his/her talents if their energy is focused on attaining the basic needs of humans.